|2018 Valencia Test|
The single chicaned Circuit Ricardo Tormo
|Date||16 - 19 October 2018|
|Location||Circuit Ricardo Tormo, Valencia, Spain|
|Lap length||3.094km (1.923mi)|
|Driver||António Félix da Costa|
2018 Rookie Test
2018 Ad Diriyah Test
The 2018 Valencia Test is an upcoming pre-season test, set to be staged at the Circuit Ricardo Tormo on the 16 - 19 October 2018. The three-day Test will be the only public pre-season test to feature all eleven teams ahead of the 2018/19 ABB FIA Formula E Championship, and the final test ahead of the season opening 2018 Ad Diriyah E-Prix.
The test came to be dominated by BMW i Andretti Motorsport in terms of outright pace, with Alexander Sims and António Félix da Costa setting the pace across all three days. The Portuguese ace also set the outright fastest time of the test, a 1:16.977, with the pair also recording 374 laps between them.
In terms of distance, however, it was 2014/15 Champion Nelson Piquet Jr. who worked hardest, with 246 laps registered for the #3 Jaguar I-Type III. The Jaguar squad as a whole also covered the most number of laps of any team with Piquet and teammate Mitch Evans combining to cover 442 tours around Valencia.
There would also be a full race simulation following the new race format of 45 minutes plus one lap, staged on the second day of the test. The unofficial victory would go to Lucas di Grassi ahead of Sims, Daniel Abt and da Costa, with Audi also emerging as the manufacturer with the most laps across the three days.
After the successful debut of the Circuit Ricardo Tormo as the main FIA Formula E test venue back in 2017, the Valencia based circuit was once again selected to host the pre-season test for the 2018/19 season. The circuit itself would be restored to the layout used for the majority of the 2017 Test, with two temporary chicanes installed on the start/finish straight to better resemble a street circuit. Indeed, the only differences between the 2017 and 2018 tests would be off circuit, with new cars and drivers, as well as the public debut of an eleventh FE team.
Below is a complete entry list for the full 2018 Valencia Test across each day:
It proved to be a warm autumnal afternoon in Valencia for the opening day of pre-season testing, with no threat of rain in spite of the grey skies. The hours before the 9:00am start time were spent with a series of press announcements, with Mahindra Racing confirming that they had signed Pascal Wehrlein for the season. Likewise, Dragon confirmed their plans to run Maximilian Günther and Antonio Fuoco at the test, while Alexander Albon's position was put in doubt when a group of Red Bull representatives arrived to speak with the Thai driver about a possible seat in Formula One.
BMW got their maiden FE campaign underway in brilliant fashion, with both Alexander Sims and António Félix da Costa setting the pace early on. Indeed, it was the debutante Sims who ended the morning fastest, a 1:17.567 smashing the old unofficial circuit record in Valencia, well before the end of the session. da Costa was less than a tenth and a half behind in second, with the former subsequently improving in the afternoon to a 1:17.553.
Only André Lotterer would get in-between the two BMWs at the top of the field, a late effort of 1:17.654 in the afternoon session leaving him second ahead of da Costa. Elsewhere, Lucas di Grassi came close to slipping ahead of the Portuguese ace, ending the afternoon with a 1:17.732, backed up by teammate Daniel Abt a tenth further back. Jérôme d'Ambrosio also managed to break into the 1:17.000s before the end of the afternoon, with defending Champion Jean-Éric Vergne ending the day a fraction shy.
Into the stragglers and Gary Paffett endured a difficult start to his FE career, sliding into the chicane shortly before the end of the morning session to cause a red flag. His new teammate Stoffel Vandoorne showed more promise, only to encounter technical troubles in the second HWA run Venturi. Likewise, an issue for Günther in the morning denied Fuoco any running in the #6 Dragon in afternoon, while Sébastien Buemi was forced to run two cars as Nissan refused to let Albon drive until his future was sorted.
Below is the full result from the first day of the 2018 Valencia Test:
|2018 Valencia Test Day One Times|
|1st||27||Alexander Sims||BMW i Andretti Motorsport||74||1:17.567||1:17.553||—|
|2nd||36||André Lotterer||DS Techeetah||69||1:18.277||1:17.654||+0.101s|
|3rd||28||António Félix da Costa||BMW i Andretti Motorsport||82||1:17.734||1:17.727||+0.174s|
|4th||11||Lucas di Grassi||Audi Sport ABT Schaeffler||78||1:17.739||1:17.732||+0.179s|
|5th||66||Daniel Abt||Audi Sport ABT Schaeffler||85||1:18.513||1:17.819||+0.266s|
|6th||64||Jérôme d'Ambrosio||Mahindra Racing||60||1:19.535||1:17.987||+0.434s|
|7th||25||Jean-Éric Vergne||DS Techeetah||44||1:18.033||1:18.035||+0.480s|
|8th||23||Sébastien Buemi||Nissan e.Dams||35||1:18.902||1:18.100||+0.547s|
|9th||7||José María López||GEOX Dragon||62||1:20.631||1:18.154||+0.601s|
|10th||19||Felipe Massa||Venturi Formula E Team||71||1:19.140||1:18.176||+0.623s|
|11th||2||Sam Bird||Envision Virgin Racing||49||1:18.732||1:18.456||+0.903s|
|12th||8||Tom Dillmann||NIO Formula E Team||66||1:19.300||1:18.504||+0.951s|
|13th||94||Pascal Wehrlein||Mahindra Racing||35||1:20.915||1:18.606||+1.053s|
|14th||4||Robin Frijns||Envision Virgin Racing||47||1:19.275||1:18.690||+1.137s|
|15th||48||Edoardo Mortara||Venturi Formula E Team||68||1:19.219||1:18.707||+1.154s|
|16th||20||Mitch Evans||Jaguar Racing||72||1:18.747||1:22.711||+1.194s|
|17th||16||Oliver Turvey||NIO Formula E Team||54||1:20.865||1:19.053||+1.500s|
|18th||17||Gary Paffett||HWA Racelab||55||1:22.083||1:19.144||+1.591s|
|19th||5||Stoffel Vandoorne||HWA Racelab||13||1:21.023||—||+3.470s|
|20th||3||Nelson Piquet Jr.||Jaguar Racing||93||1:21.629||1:23.286||+4.076s|
|21st||22||Sébastien Buemi||Nissan e.Dams||16||—||1:21.883||+4.330s|
|22nd||6||Maximilian Günther||GEOX Dragon||3||1:32.242||—||+14.689s|
|NC*||22||Alexander Albon||Nissan e.Dams||0||—|
|NC*||6||Antonio Fuoco||GEOX Dragon||0||—|
- * Albon and Fuoco both failed to set a time in either session.
The second day of testing in Valencia dawned much the same as the first, with similar temperatures and overcast, but clearing, skies. There was, however, a late change to the schedule, with a race simulation scheduled for mid-afternoon, meaning the afternoon session would be split into two half-hour runouts. There was also set to be a change to the entry list, with Oliver Rowland rumoured to be talking with Nissan for a drive, with Alexander Albon otherwise engaged negotiating with Toro Rosso and Nissan.
Ultimately, however, Rowland would not appear in the #22 car, meaning it was once again down to Sébastien Buemi to complete all of the work for Nissan. The Swiss would manage to get in the top five in the final session, although he was half a second off the ultimate pace. Indeed, it was António Félix da Costa who topped the timesheet, continuing BMW's domination of Valencia in pre-season.
The Portuguese ace would smash teammate Alexander Sims' circuit record from day one, a 1:16.977 showing that the BMW iFE.18 was likely to be the car to beat over one lap. Jean-Éric Vergne was next for DS Techeetah, albeit over a third of a second behind, with Jérôme d'Ambrosio third ahead of André Lotterer. Yet, in-spite of the large gap between da Costa and his immediate challengers, there was just a second and a half separating the Portuguese ace from Nelson Piquet Jr. in nineteenth.
Elsewhere, Antonio Fuoco got his first taste of the Spark SRT05e, a late change to the timetable at Dragon after their issues on day one. The Italian was ultimately faster than Maximilian Günther in the same equipment, although the German would only get an hour in the car in the two afternoon sessions. Stoffel Vandoorne, meanwhile, was struggling after a series of issues hampered his running, with teammate Gary Paffett also losing an alarming amount of track time in the #17 HWA Racelab.
A full race simulation was also staged on Wednesday afternoon, using the new 45 minute plus one lap format. The race started with a rolling start, although it was not long before a red flag was thrown for two issues. Indeed, the first saw Daniel Abt demolish the chicane on the start/finish straight, while Vandoorne ground to a halt a few corners on.
The race restarted with Buemi in the lead, although a FCY was required almost immediately after another collision at the chicane. This time it was a nose-to-tail collision between Piquet, Pascal Wehrlein, Tom Dillmann and Felipe Massa, which left debris strewn across the tarmac. Fortunately the race was resumed without much delay, although Buemi dropped out of the lead with an issue.
Vergne duly inherited the lead, although he was being stalked by the two BMWs of da Costa and Sims. The trio duly exchanged blows until the final ten minutes of the race, with Sims finally making a move stick on Vergne and duly pulled away. Vergne duly dropped away having been passed by da Costa, forced to save energy, although the Frenchman's presence was to be replaced by another FE Champion.
Indeed, the fighting out front had allowed Lucas di Grassi to move into contention, the Brazilian having been able to save energy as the fighting continued out front. He duly went skating past da Costa with ease, before harassing Sims as the final minutes ticked away. Yet, with one lap left it seemed as if Sims had managed to secure an unofficial victory, with di Grassi out of ideas.
However, as the Brit exited the final corner his BMW failed to accelerate instantly, allowing di Grassi to sweep past and claim the test victory. Abt copied his teammate's late charge to secure third behind Sims, with da Costa in fourth with clear air behind him. Next up was Robin Frijns in a customer Audi e-tron FE05, Jérôme d'Ambrosio, Vergne, Günther, José María López and Wehrlein.
Below is the full result from the second day of the 2018 Valencia Test:
|2018 Valencia Test Day Two Times|
|1st||28||António Félix da Costa||BMW i Andretti Motorsport||53||1:16.977||—||1:17.634||—|
|2nd||25||Jean-Éric Vergne||DS Techeetah||50||1:17.398||1:20.706||1:17.342||+0.365s|
|3rd||64||Jérôme d'Ambrosio||Mahindra Racing||41||1:17.431||—||1:20.134||+0.454s|
|4th||36||André Lotterer||DS Techeetah||59||1:17.855||1:20.737||1:17.437||+0.460s|
|5th||23||Sébastien Buemi||Nissan e.Dams||40||1:23.943||1:17.773||1:17.473||+0.496s|
|6th||11||Lucas di Grassi||Audi Sport ABT Schaeffler||59||1:17.535||—||1:18.009||+0.558s|
|7th||19||Felipe Massa||Venturi Formula E Team||56||1:17.696||1:23.088||1:18.050||+0.719s|
|8th||27||Alexander Sims||BMW i Andretti Motorsport||42||1:17.876||—||1:17.698||+0.721s|
|9th||48||Edoardo Mortara||Venturi Formula E Team||35||1:17.729||1:22.314||—||+0.752s|
|10th||94||Pascal Wehrlein||Mahindra Racing||45||1:17.781||—||1:20.543||+0.804s|
|11th||7||José María López||GEOX Dragon||55||1:17.830||1:26.385||1:18.202||+0.853s|
|12th||66||Daniel Abt||Audi Sport ABT Schaeffler||39||1:17.866||—||1:17.917||+0.899s|
|13th||20||Mitch Evans||Jaguar Racing||44||1:17.975||1:21.355||1:18.117||+0.998s|
|14th||5||Stoffel Vandoorne||HWA Racelab||34||1:18.032||—||—||+1.055s|
|15th||2||Sam Bird||Envision Virgin Racing||45||1:19.920||—||1:18.115||+1.138s|
|16th||8||Tom Dillmann||NIO Formula E Team||50||1:18.236||1:23.906||1:18.217||+1.240s|
|17th||16||Oliver Turvey||NIO Formula E Team||45||1:18.240||1:24.402||1:18.551||+1.263s|
|18th||4||Robin Frijns||Envision Virgin Racing||41||1:18.288||—||1:18.364||+1.311s|
|19th||3||Nelson Piquet Jr.||Jaguar Racing||69||1:20.235||—||1:18.498||+1.521s|
|20th||6||Antonio Fuoco||GEOX Dragon||40||1:18.778||—||—||+1.801s|
|21st||17||Gary Paffett||HWA Racelab||44||1:19.382||—||—||+2.405s|
|22nd||6||Maximilian Günther||GEOX Dragon||10||—||1:26.385||1:19.540||+2.563s|
The final day of pre-season testing dawned with miserable grey skies and heavy rain pounding the circuit, which only got heavier as the 9:00am start time approached. Fortunately the worst of the weather would pass before the start of the session, although there would still be a steady stream of rain falling until the latter half of the morning session. Like the conditions there would also be some changes to the entry list, with Oliver Rowland officially replacing Alexander Albon, and Daniel Juncadella stepping in for Stoffel Vandoorne, the latter swap having been planned since the start of the test.
Unsurprisingly the fastest times of the morning session would come towards the end of the session, with António Félix da Costa ultimately recording the best lap late on, a 1:24.870. Jean-Éric Vergne was next, almost four tenths off, while Pascal Wehrlein got his Mahindra ahead of the second BMW of Alexander Sims. The rest of the times tailed off from there, although barring a few spins there were no major incidents during the wet three hours.
Into the afternoon session and the rain had gone, although the circuit was still drying out as the session got underway. That ultimately caught out Rowland and Piquet, who lost a lot of time after issues in the opening hour of the session when the circuit was still wet. They would, however, be recovered and rejoin the action later on, unlike Edoardo Mortara who was consigned to his garage for the entire session with an unspecified issue.
At the head of the field, meanwhile, it was BMW which again proved to be the powertrain to beat, with Sims heading the timesheet for most of the session. Indeed, the Brit ultimately ended the session fastest on an almost completely dry circuit, claiming a 1:17.402. Vergne was once again second fastest, this time two tenths off the Brit, while Mitch Evans put in a strong effort to claim third with his best lap of the weekend.
Below is the full result from the third day of the 2018 Valencia Test:
|2018 Valencia Test Day Three Times|
|1st||27||Alexander Sims||BMW i Andretti Motorsport||78||1:25.567||1:17.402||—|
|2nd||25||Jean-Éric Vergne||DS Techeetah||68||1:25.258||1:17.620||+0.218s|
|3rd||20||Mitch Evans||Jaguar Racing||80||1:27.489||1:17.864||+0.462s|
|4th||94||Pascal Wehrlein||Mahindra Racing||68||1:25.519||1:17.888||+0.486s|
|5th||6||Maximilian Günther||GEOX Dragon||72||1:26.524||1:17.947||+0.545s|
|6th||4||Robin Frijns||Envision Virgin Racing||91||1:29.887||1:18.088||+0.686s|
|7th||17||Gary Paffett||HWA Racelab||53||1:28.011||1:18.164||+0.762s|
|8th||2||Sam Bird||Envision Virgin Racing||74||1:25.912||1:18.219||+0.817s|
|9th||23||Sébastien Buemi||Nissan e.Dams||71||1:25.972||1:18.220||+0.818s|
|10th||11||Lucas di Grassi||Audi Sport ABT Schaeffler||86||1:25.659||1:18.269||+0.867s|
|11th||7||Antonio Fuoco||GEOX Dragon||35||—||1:18.284||+0.882s|
|12th||64||Jérôme d'Ambrosio||Mahindra Racing||57||1:28.163||1:18.409||+1.007s|
|13th||66||Daniel Abt||Audi Sport ABT Schaeffler||66||1:28.906||1:18.479||+1.077s|
|14th||8||Tom Dillmann||NIO Formula E Team||68||1:27.921||1:18.778||+1.376s|
|15th||16||Oliver Turvey||NIO Formula E Team||63||1:27.950||1:19.083||+1.681s|
|16th||19||Felipe Massa||Venturi Formula E Team||69||1:26.027||1:19.328||+1.926s|
|17th||5||Daniel Juncadella||HWA Racelab||71||1:26.655||1:19.353||+1.951s|
|18th||22||Oliver Rowland||Nissan e.Dams||85||1:27.705||1:20.416||+3.014s|
|19th||3||Nelson Piquet Jr.||Jaguar Racing||84||1:26.978||1:21.997||+4.595s|
|20th||36||André Lotterer||DS Techeetah||89||1:26.571||1:23.048||+5.646s|
|21st||28||António Félix da Costa||BMW i Andretti Motorsport||45||1:24.870||1:23.121||+5.719s|
|22nd||7||José María López||GEOX Dragon||35||1:26.872||—||+9.470s|
|23rd||48||Edoardo Mortara||Venturi Formula E Team||9||1:29.024||—||+11.622s|
Videos and Images:
- ↑ 'Additional chicane added for second day of testing', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 02/10/2017), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2017/october/additional-chicane-added-for-second-day-of-testing/, (Accessed 02/10/2017)
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 'Dates revealed and doors open to the public for Valencia pre-season testing', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 22/08/2018), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2018/august/dates-revealed-and-doors-open-to-the-public-for-valencia-pre-season-testing/, (Accessed 23/08/2018)
- ↑ 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 'BMW top for all three days of pre-season testing', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 19/10/2018), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2018/october/bmw-top-for-all-three-days-of-pre-season-testing/, (Accessed 19/10/2018)
- ↑ 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 'BMW fastest again with da Costa toping the timesheets', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 17/10/2018), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2018/october/bmw-fastest-again-with-da-costa-toping-the-timesheets/, (Accessed 19/10/2018)
- ↑ 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 Tropher Smith, 'DI GRASSI PIPS SIMS IN SIMULATION RACE', e-racing.net, (E-Racing, 17/10/2018), https://www.e-racing.net/2018/10/17/di-grassi-pips-sims-in-simulation-race/, (Accessed 19/10/2018)
- ↑ 'HWA AG join the Formula E grid for Season 5', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 09/05/2018), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2018/may/hwa-ag-join-the-formula-e-grid-for-season-5/, (Accessed 09/05/2018)
- ↑ Sam Smith, 'Bird to Remain at Virgin Despite BMW Approach', e-racing365.com, (John Dagys Media, LLC., 25/07/2018), https://e-racing365.com/formula-e/bird-to-stay-at-virgin-despite-bmw-approach/, (Accessed 18/08/2018)
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 Sam Smith, 'Unchanged Lineup for Jaguar in Season Five', e-racing365.com, (John Dagys Media, LLC., 20/06/2018), http://e-racing365.com/formula-e/unchanged-lineup-for-jaguar-in-season-five/, (Accessed 20/06/2018)
- ↑ Alex Kalinauckas, 'Virgin reveals Gen2 Formula E livery, hires Frijns', motorsport.com, (Motorsport 05/10/2018), https://www.motorsport.com/formula-e/news/virgin-reveals-gen2-formula-e-livery-hires-frijns/3189397/, (Accessed 05/10/2018)
- ↑ 'Stoffel Vandoorne completes HWA RACELAB’s driver line up', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 15/10/2018), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2018/october/stoffel-vandoorne-completes-hwa-racelab-s-driver-line-up/, (Accessed 15/10/2018)
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 'Entry list announced ahead of pre-season testing', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 15/10/2018), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2018/october/entry-list-announced-ahead-of-pre-season-testing/, (Accessed 15/10/2018)
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 Sam Smith, 'Dragon Confirms Lopez Return', e-racing365.com, (John Dagys Media, LLC. 11/10/2018), https://e-racing365.com/formula-e/dragon-confirms-lopez-return/, (Accessed 11/10/2018)
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 'Dillmann and Turvey to drive for NIO Formula E Team', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 08/10/2018), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2018/october/dillmann-and-turvey-to-drive-for-nio-formula-e-team/, (Accessed 08/10/2018)
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 'Daniel Abt confirmes drive with Audi in Season 5', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 09/06/2018), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2018/june/daniel-abt-confirmes-drive-with-audi-in-season-5/, (Accessed 09/06/2018)
- ↑ 'Paffett to drive for HWA Racelab', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 08/10/2018), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2018/october/paffett-to-drive-for-hwa-racelab/, (Accessed 08/10/2018)
- ↑ 'Felipe Massa joins Venturi driver line up for Season 5', fiaformuale.com, (FIA Formula E, 15/05/2018), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2018/may/felipe-massa-joins-venturi-driver-line-up-for-season-5/, (Accessed 15/05/2018)
- ↑ 'Buemi and Albon lined up for Nissan e.dams debut season', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 20/09/2018), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2018/september/buemi-and-albon-lined-up-for-nissan-edams-debut-season/, (Accessed 20/09/2018)
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 Sam Smith, 'Rowland Set to Replace Albon for Valencia Test', e-racing365.com, (John Dagys Media, 17/08/2018), https://e-racing365.com/formula-e/rowland-set-to-replace-albon-for-valencia-test/, (Accessed 17/10/2018)
- ↑ 'Prost Exits Renault e.dams', e-racing365.com, (John Dagys Media, LLC., 12/06/2018), http://e-racing365.com/formula-e/prost-exits-renault-e-dams/, (Accessed 17/06/2018)
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 Tobias von Bluhm. 'Exklusiv: Andre Lotterer bestätigt Techeetah-Vertrag für 5. Formel-E-Saison', e-formel.de, (e-Formel, 02/05/2018), https://e-formel.de/news/formel-e-lotterer-bestaetigt-techeetah-vertrag-fuer-saison-5-3514.html, (Accessed 07/05/2018)
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 'BMW takes covers off season five challenger', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 14/09/2018), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2018/september/bmw-takes-covers-off-season-five-challenger/, (Accessed 14/09/2018)
- ↑ 'Mortara to race alongside Massa at VENTURI', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 11/09/2018), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2018/september/mortara-to-race-alongside-massa-at-venturi/, (Accessed 11/09/2018)
- ↑ Sam Smith, 'Mahindra Signs d’Ambrosio, Wehrlein Favorite as Teammate', e-racing365.com, (John Dagys Media, LLC., 14/10/2018), https://e-racing365.com/formula-e/mahindra-signs-dambrosio-wehrlein-favorite-as-teammate/, (Accessed 14/10/2018)
- ↑ 24.0 24.1 Sam Smith, 'Wehrlein makes Formula E move with Mahindra', eurosport.co.uk, (Eurosport, 16/10/2018), https://www.eurosport.co.uk/formula-e/wehrlein-makes-formula-e-move-with-mahindra_sto6973387/story.shtml, (Accessed 16/10/2018)
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 25.7 25.8 'Sims sets the pace at pre-season testing in Valencia', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 16/10/2018), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2018/october/sims-sets-the-pace-at-pre-season-testing-in-valencia/, (Accessed 18/10/2018)
- ↑ 26.0 26.1 'Albon is favourite for Toro Rosso drive', planetf1.com, (Planet F1, 17/10/2018), https://www.planetf1.com/news/albon-emerges-as-favourite-for-toro-rosso-drive/, (Accessed 18/10/2018)
- ↑ 'Valencia Testing - Test session 1', fiaformulae.alkamelsystems.com, (FIA Formula E, 16/10/2018), http://fiaformulae.alkamelsystems.com/Results/04_2018-19/00_Valencia%20Testing/92_ABB%20FIA%20Formula%20E%20Championship/201810160900_Test%20session%201/03_Classification_Test%20session%201.PDFm (Accessed 16/10/2018)
- ↑ 'Valencia Testing - Test session 2', fiaformulae.alkamelsystems.com, (FIA Formula E, 16/10/2018), http://fiaformulae.alkamelsystems.com/Results/04_2018-19/00_Valencia%20Testing/92_ABB%20FIA%20Formula%20E%20Championship/201810161400_Test%20session%202/03_Classification_Test%20session%202.PDF, (Accessed 16/10/2018)
- ↑ 'Valencia Testing - Test session 3', fiaformulae.alkamelsystems.com, (FIA Formula E, 17/10/2018), http://fiaformulae.alkamelsystems.com/Results/04_2018-19/00_Valencia%20Testing/92_ABB%20FIA%20Formula%20E%20Championship/201810170900_Test%20session%203/03_Classification_Test%20session%203.PDF, (Accessed 17/10/2018)
- ↑ 'Valencia Testing - Test session 4a', fiaformulae.alkamelsystems.com, (FIA Formula E, 17/10/2018), http://fiaformulae.alkamelsystems.com/Results/04_2018-19/00_Valencia%20Testing/92_ABB%20FIA%20Formula%20E%20Championship/201810171400_Test%20session%204a/03_Classification_Test%20session%204a.PDF, (Accessed 17/10/2018)
- ↑ 'Valencia Testing - Test session 4b', fiaformulae.alkamelsystems.com, (FIA Formula E, 17/10/2018), http://fiaformulae.alkamelsystems.com/Results/04_2018-19/00_Valencia%20Testing/92_ABB%20FIA%20Formula%20E%20Championship/201810171648_Test%20session%204b/03_Classification_Test%20session%204b.PDF, (Accessed 17/10/2018)
- ↑ 'Valencia Testing: Results Booklet', fiaformulae.alkamelsystems.com, (FIA Formula E, 19/10/2018), http://fiaformulae.alkamelsystems.com/Results/04_2018-19/00_Valencia%20Testing/92_ABB%20FIA%20Formula%20E%20Championship/Valencia%20Testing%20Booklet.pdf, (Accessed 19/10/2018)