|Based||Le Mans, France|
|Début||2014 Beijing ePrix|
|Driver(s)|| Sébastien Buemi (No. 23)|
Oliver Rowland (No. 22)
|Last Season||4th (190 pt(s))|
|First Win||2014 Punta del Este ePrix|
|Titles||3 (2014/15; 2015/16; 2016/17)|
|Sébastien Buemi||Oliver Rowland|
|11th (27 Pt(s))||9th (30 Pt(s))|
|4th (57 Pt(s))|
e.Dams, competing under the name Nissan e.Dams, are an entrant in the 2019/20 ABB FIA Formula E Championship, running with manufacturer backing from Nissan. Based in Le Mans, France, e.Dams are FE's most successful team, having won the Teams' Championship three times in a row, and supported lead driver Sébastien Buemi to the title in 2015/16.
Throughout their time in FE e.Dams have been associated with Renault, a relationship that would go on for a fourth straight season in 2017/18, until Renault announced their withdrawal at the end of the season. Fortunately for e.Dams, Renault would be replaced by alliance partners Nissan, who agreed to have the French based team run their FE squad for 2018/19.
The first season of the Nissan e.Dams partnership saw the squad emerge with impressive one-lap pace, claiming pole in six poles and a single victory at the 2019 New York City E-Prix I. That left the squad in fourth in the Championship with 190 points, although their dual motor powertrain was ultimately outlawed at the end of the season.
e.dams-Renault were formed in 2013, specifically for the Formula E Championship. Co-founder Jean-Paul Dirot brought experience of running the French A1 GP Series team as well as cars in GP2 Series/Formula Two and Formula Renault. Alain Prost (the other co-founder) brought his experience as a four time Formula One champion to the team, as well as his son, Nicolas.
Formula E History
Nicolas Prost and Sébastien Buemi ran for e.dams-Renault throughout the entire 2014/15 season. Buemi impressed early on, setting the fastest lap at the Donington Park test on two successive days. Prost, meanwhile, started the season on pole position for the 2014 Beijing ePrix, ultimately missing out on victory after a late crash with Nick Heidfeld. Prost's pace was to be rewarded with victory later in the season at Miami, after Buemi took victory in the 2014 Punta del Este ePrix.
Buemi's form saw him become a title contender through the second half of the season, as Prost's pace, and fortune, deserted him. Buemi claimed his second victory of the season (becoming the first to do so, and the first to win from pole position) at the 2015 Monaco ePrix, with himself, Lucas di Grassi and Nelson Piquet Jr. favourites for the title. e.dams then made a mistake during the 2015 Moscow ePrix, which cost both of their drivers valuable points, particularly when the events that were to unfold in London were taken into account. Having failed to read the briefing notes earlier in the day, e.dams made both of their stops ten seconds longer, costing both Buemi and Prost time and positions on track, with ten seconds the difference between Buemi in ninth, and António Félix da Costa in seventh.
e.dams London weekend was a vast improvement over Moscow, with the team taking the Teams' Championship with a race to spare in the First London ePrix. With Buemi winning the race from pole, the Swiss driver was left just three points behind Piquet at the start of the season ending 2015 London ePrix II. The Driver's Title would come down to the final corner of the race, however, with Buemi unable to pass Bruno Senna into the final corner of the season, meaning Nelson Piquet Jr. won the Championship by a single point.
Second editionImmediately after the London ePrix, e.dams-Renault confirmed their entry as a manufacturer backed team for 2015/16, with Renault building a powertrain for them. The team were rebranded as Renault e.Dams to mark the work of the French car manufacturers in building the team's 2015/16 challenger, the Renault Z.E. 15. This work was reflected at the 2015 Donington Test, where the new car completed 353 laps over the six days, with only one fault affecting Buemi over the entire three week programme. Buemi and Prost (who also completed the test) were later confirmed as the drivers for the team, with themselves, and ABT Schaeffler Audi Sport expected to be the major title contenders.
It would be an excellent start to the season for e.Dams, with Buemi taking pole, fastest lap and victory in Beijing to become the first man to score maximum points. Yet, the new car did have flaws, and when the Swiss racer was all set to repeat his Beijing feats in Putrajaya, an overheating issue sent him tumbling down the order just before the stops. These concerns were resolved in time for the 2015 Punta del Este ePrix, however, and Buemi duly claimed a second win of the season, despite missing out on pole.
The following rounds would see Buemi record two second places, the latter one in Mexico City seeing him return to the top of the Drivers' Championship. That round would also see Prost get onto the podium for the first time, the Frenchman finally getting on terms with his teammate by finishing third. A difficult weekend in Long Beach followed as both cars got caught out by incidents, leaving Buemi to only pick up points for fastest lap.
e.Dams then headed to Paris for their home race, confident that they could record a home victory as the French capital made its ePrix debut. Yet, a poor qualifying saw both Prost and Buemi have to battle their way up the order in the race, with the latter getting onto the podium as major rival di Grassi claimed victory for ABT Schaeffler Audi Sport. Fortunately for e.Dams, the following round in Berlin suited their car, and when Buemi claimed victory on ABT's home turf it left the Swiss racer just a point away from di Grassi.
Into the season ending double header in London, and a poor qualifying session for the 2016 London ePrix I saw both Buemi and di Grassi battle up the order, the latter extending him title lead to three points. That race also saw Prost pick up his first win of the season, a victory that also put e.Dams in prime position to win the Teams' Championship. Then came the finale itself, with Buemi managing to get level on points with di Grassi by claiming pole for the 2016 London ePrix II, with Prost lining up alongside.
At the start it would be the two e.Dams drivers trying to box in di Grassi into the first braking zone, with Buemi opting to take it easy through the turn three on the opening lap. The Brazilian, however, misjudged the closing speed and slammed into the back of the Swiss racer, leaving both cars out of the race with heavy damage, and seemingly earning himself the title by virtue of having more third places. Yet, there were still two points on offer for fastest lap, and despite di Grassi's best attempts to block him, Buemi and e.Dams found enough space for the Swiss racer to obliterate the lap record and win his first FE title. His personal efforts also helped e.Dams to complete the defence of their Teams' title, although that was ultimately secured when Prost swept home to take a second victory of the weekend.
For the 2016/17 season there would be little change for e.Dams, with both Prost and Buemi retained, while Renault continued to support them as a factory effort. They would not, however, be the only team to run the new Renault Z.E. 16, as the French car maker had sold a quartet of cars to new team Techeetah, although those cars would not receive any real support. Regardless, it would be Buemi and e.Dams who proved to be the class of the field at the 2016 Donington Test, where the Swiss racer smashed the circuit record to set the fastest lap of the test.
There was little change at e.Dams ahead of the 2017/18 season, with Renault again providing manufacturer backing, while Buemi and Prost were retained as drivers. Yet, the e.Dams squad would be overshadowed by Renault's customer team Techeetah at the opening round of the season, with the Chinese squad getting a podium with the new Renault Z.E. 17, while Buemi and Prost recorded just seven points between them across the two races. Fortunately for them Buemi's loss of pace appeared to be a blip, for the Swiss racer secured pole in Marrakech, before going on to finish second to Felix Rosenqvist.
In truth, e.Dams' 2017/18 season had been rocked completely by the announcement that Renault would leave FE at the end of the season, a revelation that came before the start of the season. e.Dams, however, would secure a deal with Renault's alliance partners Nissan for the 2018/19 season, and would duly run Nissan backed racer Mitsunori Takaboshi alongside DAMS Formula Two racer Alexander Albon at the 2018 Rookie Test. Albon would finish the test as the faster of the pair, although both were well off the pace of e.Dams' old rivals ABT Sportsline, as well as the Techeetahs.
After the Rookie Test Buemi proved that he still had pace in the Renault Z.E. 17, with the Swiss racer taking further podia in Santiago and Mexico City. Prost, meanwhile, would embark on a six race pointless run after the Santiago race, while Buemi could only secure mid-top ten finishes from Rome until Zürich. That meant that e.Dams had lost their Teams' Championship crown well in advance of the season finale, with the French squad fighting just to finish in the top half of the table.
Yet, Buemi would again rediscover his form from the previous three FE seasons, and duly claimed pole position ahead of the 2018 New York City E-Prix I, while Prost made only his second appearance of the season in Super Pole. Yet, Buemi would be powerless to prevent the two Audis from barging past, while Prost slipped to a lowly tenth having run mid-pack throughout the race. Buemi again claimed pole in a damp qualifying session for the second New York City E-Prix, although he was ultimately knocked off the podium.
For 2018/19 e.Dams would obtain backing from Japanese manufacturer Nissan, whom joined FE in place of global partners Renault, and would use a powertrain built by the French manufacturer developed before their withdrawal. The new "Nissan e.Dams" team would retain the services of Buemi, but announced that Prost would leave the team at the end of the 2017/18 season after a difficult campaign. The Frenchman was duly replaced by Alexander Albon ahead of the 2018 Valencia Test, although the Anglo-Thai racer would ultimately leave the team without ever driving the car after obtaining a drive in Formula One. His seat was therefore taken by e.Dams' former reserve driver Oliver Rowland.
The season opening round in Ad Diriyah saw the two Nissans run in the midfield for most of the race, with Rowland able to match Buemi's pace throughout. Buemi subsequently scored an eighth place in Marrakech as Rowland failed to score, before the Swiss ace secured the first pole position for Nissan at the 2019 Santiago E-Prix. Unfortunately their hopes of a maiden victory were shattered mid-race when Buemi crashed out while fighting with Bird for the lead, while Rowland likewise had a race ending trip to the barriers later on.
Another disappointing race in Mexico City followed, the two Nissans dropping out of the points on the last lap due to an energy consumption miscalculation, before another double retirement in Hong Kong. Rowland duly bounced back to claim his maiden pole position at the 2019 Sanya E-Prix, only to missout on victory to a late lunge by Jean-Éric Vergne, while Buemi was slapped with a post-race penalty for causing a collision with Robin Frijns that also took out arch-rival di Grassi. A double points finish followed in Rome, before the squad headed to their home race in Paris to try and claim an increasingly rare victory.
Indeed, in spite of Rowland claiming pole position after Pascal Wehrlein was excluded, the Paris E-Prix would be disastrous affair for e.Dams, with both Buemi and Rowland picking up damage while fighting at the head of the field. They hence both dropped to the back of the field, both while leading the race, before enjoying a stronger weekend in Monte Carlo a fortnight later. Rowland would once again claim pole position, only to serve a grid penalty for his antics in Paris, before inheriting second when Wehrlein sent himself wide at Sainte Devote, while Buemi slipped down the order.
Buemi outlined the Nissan's inherent pace at the following round in Berlin, although he would missout on victory after rival di Grassi charged past early on to claim a dominant victory. Another strong race for the e.Dams squad followed in Bern, with Buemi finishing on the podium after race long fight with Vergne and Mitch Evans to keep his title hopes alive. That result came amid news that Nissan's dual motor powertrain was to be outlawed at the end of the season, after concerns by rivals that such a system could be manipulated to increase the amount of re-gen a car could achieve.
Regardless, Buemi and e.Dams would arrive at the season finale in New York City knowing that they could win both Championships if they had a perfect weekend. Buemi duly claimed an impressive maiden victory for Nissan in the opening race of the weekend from pole, but remained an outside shot for the title, while Rowland's failure to score meant that e.Dams were out of the Teams Championship hunt. Buemi's title hopes were ultimately extinguished when he failed to claim pole for the season ending 2019 New York City E-Prix II, although the Swiss ace would round out the season on the podium in third.
A Single Solution: 2019/20
A difficult summer for Nissan e.Dams followed, with the Japanese-French alliance having to develop a whole new powertrain design based around a single motor. Yet, stability elsewhere, including the retention of both Rowland and Buemi for the season, would ensure that the project ran smoothly, and proved competitive at the 2019 Valencia Test.
Formula E Record
The tables below show E.Dams's full record in the FIA Formula E Championship.
Formula E Entries
The table below gives an overview of E.Dams's entries in Formula E:
|E.Dams's overall Formula E Record|
|Season||Official name||No.||Drivers||DC Pos.||DC Pts.||Car||TC Pos.||TC Pts.|
|2014/15||e.dams-Renault||8||Nicolas Prost||6th||88 (89)||Spark-Renault SRT_01E||1st||232|
|2015/16||Renault e.Dams||8||Nicolas Prost||3rd||115||Renault Z.E. 15||1st||270|
|2016/17||Renault e.Dams||8||Nicolas Prost||6th||93||Renault Z.E. 16||1st||268|
|2017/18||Renault e.Dams||8||Nicolas Prost||19th||8||Renault Z.E. 17||5th||133|
|2018/19||Nissan e.Dams||22||Oliver Rowland*||10th||71||Nissan IM01||4th||190|
|2019/20||Nissan e.Dams||22||Oliver Rowland||Nissan IM02|
- * Alexander Albon was originally signed to drive for Nissan e.Dams in 2018/19, but subsequently moved to Toro Rosso in Formula One before the start of the season.
Listed below are the full career results of E.Dams:
|FIA Formula E Championship Record|
Videos and Images:
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 'Season 6 manufacturers confirmed', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 10/04/2018), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2018/april/season-6-manufacturers-confirmed/, (Accessed 01/12/2018)
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 'Teams: e.dams-Renault', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 2015), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/teams/edams-renault.aspx, (Accessed 18/07/2015)
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 'BUEMI WINS TITLE AFTER SPECTACULAR FINALE: VISA FASTEST LAP ENDS UP DECIDING THE 2015/16 FIA FORMULA E CHAMPIONSHIP', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 03/07/2016), http://fiaformulae.com/en/news/2016/july/buemi-wins-title-after-spectacular-finale/, (Accessed 04/07/2016)
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 'Nissan joins growing list of automotive brands in Formula E', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 25/10/2017), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2017/october/nissan-joins-growing-list-of-automotive-brands-in-formula-e/, (Accessed 25/10/2017)
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 'Frijns wins while Vergne claims historic two-time Championship title in New York', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 14/07/2019), https://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2019/july/race-report-nyc-2-2019, (Accessed 15/07/2019)
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
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- ↑ 7.0 7.1 'Lucas di Grassi snatches win after dramatic last corner crash', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 13/09/2014), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2014/september/lucas-di-grassi-snatches-win-after-dramatic-last-corner-crash.aspx, (Accessed 30/04/2015)
- ↑ 'Prost powers to first Formula E win', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 14/03/2015) http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2015/march/prost-powers-to-first-formula-e-win.aspx, (Accessed 30/04/2015)
- ↑ 'Poleman Buemi doubles up', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 09/05/2015), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2015/may/poleman-buemi-doubles-up.aspx, (Accessed 09/05/2015)
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 'Piquet masters Moscow', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 30/06/2015), http://fiaformulae.com/en/news/2015/june/piquet-increases-lead-in-championship-with-moscow-win.aspx, (Accessed 09/06/2015)
- ↑ 11.0 11.1 'Buemi’s stroll in the park', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 27/06/2015), http://fiaformulae.com/en/news/2015/june/buemi-wins-as-edams-renault-clinch-team-title.aspx, (Accessed 30/06/2015)
- ↑ 'Bird hails ‘unbelievable’ end to season', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 28/06/2015), http://fiaformulae.com/en/news/2015/june/bird-hails-unbelievable-end-to-season.aspx, (Accessed 30/06/2015)
- ↑ 'Renault confirms manufacturer entry for season two', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 29/06/2015), http://fiaformulae.com/en/news/2015/june/renault-confirms-manufacturer-entry-for-season-two.aspx, (Accessed 29/06/2015)
- ↑ 'Renault e.dams retain Prost and Buemi', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 28/08/2015),http://fiaformulae.com/en/news/2015/august/renault-edams-retain-prost-and-buemi.aspx, (Accessed 28/08/2015)
- ↑ 'Di Grassi keeps his cool to win in Putrajaya', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 07/11/2015), http://fiaformulae.com/en/news/2015/november/di-grassi-keeps-his-cool-to-win-in-putrajaya.aspx, (Accessed 22/11/2015)
- ↑ 'Buemi back on top', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 19/12/2015), http://fiaformulae.com/en/news/2015/december/buemi-back-on-top.aspx, (Accessed 25/12/2015)
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 'Di Grassi stripped of Mexico win', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 12/03/2016), http://fiaformulae.com/en/news/2016/march/di-grassi-stripped-of-mexico-win.aspx, (Accessed 13/03/2016)
- ↑ 'Di Grassi's Shoreline sensation', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 02/04/2016), http://fiaformulae.com/en/news/2016/april/di-grassi-s-shoreline-sensation/, (Accessed 03/04/2016)
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 'Di Grassi triumphant in Paris', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 23/04/2016), http://fiaformulae.com/en/news/2016/april/di-grassi-wins-visa-paris-eprix/, (Accessed 23/04/2016)
- ↑ 'Buemi win cuts di Grassi's lead to just one point', fiaformula.com, (FIA Formula E, 21/05/2016), http://fiaformulae.com/en/news/2016/may/buemi-win-cuts-di-grassi-s-lead-to-just-one-point/, (Accessed 21/05/2016)
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 'BUEMI AND DI GRASSI CHARGE UP THE ORDER, BUT IT’S PROST WHO LEADS THE WAY', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 02/07/2016), http://fiaformulae.com/en/news/2016/july/prost-wins-in-style-as-di-grassi-inches-closer-to-title/, (Accessed 03/07/2016)
- ↑ 'Renault e.Dams confirm Buemi and Prost for 2016/17', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 20/05/2016), http://fiaformulae.com/en/news/2016/may/renault-edams-confirm-buemi-and-prost-for-201617/, (Accessed 20/05/2016)
- ↑ 'SECA SECURE FIA FORMULA E CHAMPIONSHIP ENTRY: JEAN-ERIC VERGNE AND MA QING HUA CONFIRMED AS DRIVERS', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 07/07/2016), http://fiaformulae.com/en/news/2016/july/seca-secure-fia-formula-e-championship-entry/, (Accessed 08/07/2016)
- ↑ Scott Mitchell, 'Sebastien Buemi, Nico Prost extend Renault e.dams Formula E deals', autosport.com, (Haymarket Media, 09/06/2017), http://www.autosport.com/news/report.php/id/130003/buemi-prost-get-twoyear-renault-extension, (Accessed 11/06/2017)
- ↑ 'Many happy returns: Abt sails to victory in Hong Kong harbour', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 03/12/2017), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2017/december/many-happy-returns-abt-sails-to-victory-in-hong-kong-harbour/, (Accessed 03/12/2017)
- ↑ 'Rosenqvist victorious in 2018 ABB FIA Formula E Marrakesh E-Prix', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 13/01/2018), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2018/january/rosenqvist-victorious-in-2018-abb-fia-formula-e-marrakesh-e-prix/, (Accessed 13/01/2018)
- ↑ Scott Mitchell, 'Renault to test Nissan's F3 champion in Formula E at Marrakech', autosport.com, (Motorsport Network, 21/12/2017), https://www.autosport.com/fe/news/133637/renault-to-test-nissan-f3-champion, (Accessed 21/12/2017)
Sam Smith, 'Albon to Test for Renault e.dams', e-racing365.com, (John Dagys Media LLC, 19/12/2017), http://e-racing365.com/formula-e/albon-to-test-for-renault-e-dams/, (Accessed 19/12/2017)
- ↑ Scott Mitchell, 'Audi's Muller sets lap record in Formula E rookie test', motorsport.com, (Motorsport Network, 14/01/2018), https://www.motorsport.com/formula-e/news/audi-muller-tops-formula-e-rookie-test-with-new-lap-record-995760/, (Accessed 15/01/2018)
- ↑ 'Abt finally clinches first victory in Mexico City', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 03/03/2018), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2018/march/abt-finally-clinches-first-victory-in-mexico-city/, (Accessed 04/03/2018)
- ↑ 30.0 30.1 'Di Grassi clinches first season victory in historic Swiss race', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 10/06/2018), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2018/june/di-grassi-clinches-first-season-victory-in-historic-swiss-race/, (Accessed 11/06/2018)
- ↑ 31.0 31.1 'Di Grassi victorious as Vergne clinches championship crown', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 14/07/2018), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2018/july/di-grassi-victorious-as-vergne-clinches-championship-crown/, (Accessed 15/07/2018)
- ↑ 'Champion Vergne victorious as Audi scoops the teams' title in New York finale', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 15/07/2018), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2018/july/champion-vergne-victorious-as-audi-scoops-the-teams-title-in-new-york-finale/, (Accessed 16/07/2018)
- ↑ Chris Soulsby, 'Nicolas Prost loses Renault e.dams seat for Season 5', motorsportweek.com, (Motorsport Media Services Ltd., 12/06/2018), https://www.motorsportweek.com/news/id/18590, (Accessed 18/07/2018)
- ↑ 34.0 34.1 'Buemi and Albon lined up for Nissan e.dams debut season', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 20/09/2018), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2018/september/buemi-and-albon-lined-up-for-nissan-edams-debut-season/, (Accessed 20/09/2018)
- ↑ Andrew Benson, 'Alexander Albon: Toro Rosso deal for 2019 for British-born Thai driver', bbc.co.uk/sport, (British Broadcasting Company, 26/11/2018), https://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/formula1/46350378, (Accessed 26/11/2018)
- ↑ 36.0 36.1 Alex Kalinauckas, 'Oliver Rowland takes F1-bound Alexander Albon's Formula E drive', autosport.com, (Motorsport Network, 30/11/2018), https://www.autosport.com/fe/news/140435/rowland-announced-as-albon-fe-replacement, (Accessed 30/11/2018)
- ↑ 'Race Report: Da Costa - 'We did it baby, we're back!', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 15/12/2018), https://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2018/december/race-report-saudi, (Accessed 15/12/2018)
- ↑ 38.0 38.1 'Bird storms to victory in sweltering Santiago showdown', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 26/01/2019), https://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2019/january/race-report-santiago-2019, (Accessed 27/01/2019)
- ↑ 'Bird victorious in furious battle for first on Hong Kong Harbourfront', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 10/03/2019), https://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2019/march/race-report-hong-kong-2019, (Accessed 11/03/2019)
- ↑ 'Vergne victorious in Sanya showdown, championship blown wide open', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 23/03/2019), https://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2019/march/race-report-sanya-2019, (Accessed 23/03/2019)
- ↑ 41.0 41.1 'Frijns emerges victorious in frantic French E-Prix', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 27/04/2019), https://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2019/april/race-report-paris-2019, (Accessed 27/04/2019)
- ↑ 42.0 42.1 'Vergne masters Monaco while Massa claims maiden Formula E podium ', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 11/05/2019), https://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2019/may/race-report-monaco-2019, (Accessed 12/05/2019)
- ↑ 'Di Grassi victorious in the battle for Berlin, home race victory for Audi', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 25/05/2019), https://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2019/may/race-report-berlin-2019, (Accessed 25/05/2019)
- ↑ 'Vergne victorious in frantic battle for Bern ahead of Championship finale', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 22/06/2019), https://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2019/june/race-report-bern-2019, (Accessed 23/06/2019)
- ↑ 45.0 45.1 Sam Smith, 'Twin-MGU Designs Set to Be Outlawed', e-racing365.com, (John Dagys Media LLC., 14/06/2019), https://e-racing365.com/formula-e/twin-mgu-designs-set-to-be-outlawed/, (Accessed 14/06/2019)
- ↑ 46.0 46.1 'Buemi wins in New York but disaster for Champ Vergne extends title challenge', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 13/07/2019), https://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2019/july/race-report-nyc-2019, (Accessed 14/07/2019)
- ↑ Sam Smith, 'Formula E: Guenther Sets Fastest Lap of Valencia Testing', e-racing365.com, (John Dagys Media, LLC., 18/10/2019), https://e-racing365.com/formula-e/guenther-sets-fastest-lap-of-valencia-testing/, (Accessed 22/10/2019)
- ↑ 'Nissan joins growing list of automotive brands in Formula E', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 25/10/2017), http://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2017/october/nissan-joins-growing-list-of-automotive-brands-in-formula-e/, (Accessed 25/10/2017)
- ↑ Sam Smith, 'Prost Exits Renault e.dams', e-racing365.com, (John Dagys Media, LLC., 12/06/2018), http://e-racing365.com/formula-e/prost-exits-renault-e-dams/, (Accessed 17/06/2018)
- ↑ 50.0 50.1 'Nissan e.dams retain Buemi and Rowland for 2019/20', fiaformulae.com, (FIA Formula E, 05/09/2019), https://www.fiaformulae.com/en/news/2019/september/nissan-retain-buemi-rowland, (Accessed 05/09/2019)
- ↑ 'Albon is favourite for Toro Rosso drive', planetf1.com, (Planet F1, 17/10/2018), https://www.planetf1.com/news/albon-emerges-as-favourite-for-toro-rosso-drive/, (Accessed 18/10/2018)